MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual

Including MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2 Reference Guide


This is the MySQL™ Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 5.5 through 5.5.36, as well as MySQL Cluster releases based on version 7.2 of NDBCLUSTER through 5.5.34-ndb-7.2.15.

MySQL 5.5 features.  This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of MySQL 5.5; such features may not be included in the edition of MySQL 5.5 licensed to you. If you have any questions about the features included in your edition of MySQL 5.5, refer to your MySQL 5.5 license agreement or contact your Oracle sales representative.

For release notes detailing the changes in each release, see the MySQL 5.5 Release Notes.

For legal information, see the Legal Notices.

Document generated on: 2013-11-22 (revision: 36797)

Table of Contents

Preface and Legal Notices
1. General Information
1.1. About This Manual
1.2. Typographical and Syntax Conventions
1.3. Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.3.1. What is MySQL?
1.3.2. The Main Features of MySQL
1.3.3. History of MySQL
1.4. What Is New in MySQL 5.5
1.4.1. Scalability Improvements
1.4.2. InnoDB I/O Subsystem Changes
1.4.3. Diagnostic and Monitoring Capabilities
1.4.4. Enhanced Solaris Support
1.5. MySQL Development History
1.6. MySQL Information Sources
1.6.1. MySQL Mailing Lists
1.6.2. MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.6.3. MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.6.4. MySQL Enterprise
1.7. How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.8. MySQL Standards Compliance
1.8.1. What Standards MySQL Follows
1.8.2. Selecting SQL Modes
1.8.3. Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
1.8.4. MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.8.5. MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.8.6. How MySQL Deals with Constraints
1.9. Credits
1.9.1. Contributors to MySQL
1.9.2. Documenters and translators
1.9.3. Packages that support MySQL
1.9.4. Tools that were used to create MySQL
1.9.5. Supporters of MySQL
2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1. General Installation Guidance
2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server
2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
2.1.3. How to Get MySQL
2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.5. Installation Layouts
2.1.6. Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2. Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1. MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2. Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer
2.3.4. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows
2.3.5. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package
2.3.6. MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard
2.3.7. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.8. Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.9. Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.10. Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.4. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.4.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.4.2. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X Using Native Packages
2.4.3. Installing the MySQL Startup Item
2.4.4. Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.4.5. Using the Bundled MySQL on Mac OS X Server
2.5. Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1. Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages
2.5.2. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages
2.5.3. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers
2.6. Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7. Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris
2.7.1. Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.7.2. Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS
2.8. Installing MySQL on HP-UX
2.8.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on HP-UX
2.8.2. Installing MySQL on HP-UX Using DEPOT Packages
2.9. Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.10. Installing MySQL from Source
2.10.1. MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.10.2. Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.10.3. Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.10.4. MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.10.5. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.10.6. MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.11. Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.11.1. Postinstallation Procedures for Unix-like Systems
2.11.2. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.12. Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.12.1. Upgrading MySQL
2.12.2. Downgrading MySQL
2.12.3. Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt
2.12.4. Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.12.5. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.13. Environment Variables
2.14. Perl Installation Notes
2.14.1. Installing Perl on Unix
2.14.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.14.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3. Tutorial
3.1. Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2. Entering Queries
3.3. Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1. Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2. Creating a Table
3.3.3. Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4. Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4. Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5. Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6. Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1. The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2. The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3. Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4. The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.5. Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6. Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7. Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8. Calculating Visits Per Day
3.7. Using MySQL with Apache
4. MySQL Programs
4.1. Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2. Using MySQL Programs
4.2.1. Invoking MySQL Programs
4.2.2. Connecting to the MySQL Server
4.2.3. Specifying Program Options
4.2.4. Setting Environment Variables
4.3. MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs
4.3.1. mysqld — The MySQL Server
4.3.2. mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.3. mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.4. mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
4.4. MySQL Installation-Related Programs
4.4.1. comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File
4.4.2. mysqlbug — Generate Bug Report
4.4.3. mysql_install_db — Initialize MySQL Data Directory
4.4.4. mysql_plugin — Configure MySQL Server Plugins
4.4.5. mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security
4.4.6. mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
4.4.7. mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables
4.5. MySQL Client Programs
4.5.1. mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
4.5.2. mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
4.5.3. mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance Program
4.5.4. mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.5. mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
4.5.6. mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
4.5.7. mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
4.6. MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs
4.6.1. innochecksum — Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility
4.6.2. myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
4.6.3. myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
4.6.4. myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
4.6.5. myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
4.6.6. mysqlaccess — Client for Checking Access Privileges
4.6.7. mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
4.6.8. mysqldumpslow — Summarize Slow Query Log Files
4.6.9. mysqlhotcopy — A Database Backup Program
4.6.10. mysql_convert_table_format — Convert Tables to Use a Given Storage Engine
4.6.11. mysql_find_rows — Extract SQL Statements from Files
4.6.12. mysql_fix_extensions — Normalize Table File Name Extensions
4.6.13. mysql_setpermission — Interactively Set Permissions in Grant Tables
4.6.14. mysql_waitpid — Kill Process and Wait for Its Termination
4.6.15. mysql_zap — Kill Processes That Match a Pattern
4.7. MySQL Program Development Utilities
4.7.1. msql2mysql — Convert mSQL Programs for Use with MySQL
4.7.2. mysql_config — Display Options for Compiling Clients
4.7.3. my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
4.7.4. resolve_stack_dump — Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols
4.8. Miscellaneous Programs
4.8.1. perror — Explain Error Codes
4.8.2. replace — A String-Replacement Utility
4.8.3. resolveip — Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa
5. MySQL Server Administration
5.1. The MySQL Server
5.1.1. Server Option and Variable Reference
5.1.2. Server Configuration Defaults
5.1.3. Server Command Options
5.1.4. Server System Variables
5.1.5. Using System Variables
5.1.6. Server Status Variables
5.1.7. Server SQL Modes
5.1.8. Server Plugins
5.1.9. IPv6 Support
5.1.10. Server-Side Help
5.1.11. Server Response to Signals
5.1.12. The Shutdown Process
5.2. MySQL Server Logs
5.2.1. Selecting General Query and Slow Query Log Output Destinations
5.2.2. The Error Log
5.2.3. The General Query Log
5.2.4. The Binary Log
5.2.5. The Slow Query Log
5.2.6. Server Log Maintenance
5.3. Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine
5.3.1. Setting Up Multiple Data Directories
5.3.2. Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Windows
5.3.3. Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Unix
5.3.4. Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
5.4. Tracing mysqld Using DTrace
5.4.1. mysqld DTrace Probe Reference
6. Security
6.1. General Security Issues
6.1.1. Security Guidelines
6.1.2. Keeping Passwords Secure
6.1.3. Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
6.1.4. Security-Related mysqld Options and Variables
6.1.5. How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
6.1.6. Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
6.1.7. Client Programming Security Guidelines
6.2. The MySQL Access Privilege System
6.2.1. Privileges Provided by MySQL
6.2.2. Privilege System Grant Tables
6.2.3. Specifying Account Names
6.2.4. Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
6.2.5. Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
6.2.6. When Privilege Changes Take Effect
6.2.7. Causes of Access-Denied Errors
6.3. MySQL User Account Management
6.3.1. User Names and Passwords
6.3.2. Adding User Accounts
6.3.3. Removing User Accounts
6.3.4. Setting Account Resource Limits
6.3.5. Assigning Account Passwords
6.3.6. Pluggable Authentication
6.3.7. Proxy Users
6.3.8. Using SSL for Secure Connections
6.3.9. Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
6.3.10. MySQL Enterprise Audit Log Plugin
6.3.11. SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing
7. Backup and Recovery
7.1. Backup and Recovery Types
7.2. Database Backup Methods
7.3. Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
7.3.1. Establishing a Backup Policy
7.3.2. Using Backups for Recovery
7.3.3. Backup Strategy Summary
7.4. Using mysqldump for Backups
7.4.1. Dumping Data in SQL Format with mysqldump
7.4.2. Reloading SQL-Format Backups
7.4.3. Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump
7.4.4. Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups
7.4.5. mysqldump Tips
7.5. Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log
7.5.1. Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Times
7.5.2. Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Positions
7.6. MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
7.6.1. Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
7.6.2. How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
7.6.3. How to Repair MyISAM Tables
7.6.4. MyISAM Table Optimization
7.6.5. Setting Up a MyISAM Table Maintenance Schedule
8. Optimization
8.1. Optimization Overview
8.2. Optimizing SQL Statements
8.2.1. Optimizing SELECT Statements
8.2.2. Optimizing DML Statements
8.2.3. Optimizing Database Privileges
8.2.4. Optimizing INFORMATION_SCHEMA Queries
8.2.5. Other Optimization Tips
8.3. Optimization and Indexes
8.3.1. How MySQL Uses Indexes
8.3.2. Using Primary Keys
8.3.3. Using Foreign Keys
8.3.4. Column Indexes
8.3.5. Multiple-Column Indexes
8.3.6. Verifying Index Usage
8.3.7. InnoDB and MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
8.3.8. Comparison of B-Tree and Hash Indexes
8.4. Optimizing Database Structure
8.4.1. Optimizing Data Size
8.4.2. Optimizing MySQL Data Types
8.4.3. Optimizing for Many Tables
8.4.4. How MySQL Uses Internal Temporary Tables
8.5. Optimizing for InnoDB Tables
8.5.1. Optimizing Storage Layout for InnoDB Tables
8.5.2. Optimizing InnoDB Transaction Management
8.5.3. Optimizing InnoDB Logging
8.5.4. Bulk Data Loading for InnoDB Tables
8.5.5. Optimizing InnoDB Queries
8.5.6. Optimizing InnoDB DDL Operations
8.5.7. Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O
8.5.8. Optimizing InnoDB Configuration Variables
8.5.9. Optimizing InnoDB for Systems with Many Tables
8.6. Optimizing for MyISAM Tables
8.6.1. Optimizing MyISAM Queries
8.6.2. Bulk Data Loading for MyISAM Tables
8.6.3. Speed of REPAIR TABLE Statements
8.7. Optimizing for MEMORY Tables
8.8. Understanding the Query Execution Plan
8.8.1. Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
8.8.2. EXPLAIN Output Format
8.8.3. EXPLAIN EXTENDED Output Format
8.8.4. Estimating Query Performance
8.8.5. Controlling the Query Optimizer
8.9. Buffering and Caching
8.9.1. The InnoDB Buffer Pool
8.9.2. The MyISAM Key Cache
8.9.3. The MySQL Query Cache
8.10. Optimizing Locking Operations
8.10.1. Internal Locking Methods
8.10.2. Table Locking Issues
8.10.3. Concurrent Inserts
8.10.4. Metadata Locking
8.10.5. External Locking
8.11. Optimizing the MySQL Server
8.11.1. System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning
8.11.2. Tuning Server Parameters
8.11.3. Optimizing Disk I/O
8.11.4. Optimizing Memory Use
8.11.5. Optimizing Network Use
8.11.6. The Thread Pool Plugin
8.12. Measuring Performance (Benchmarking)
8.12.1. Measuring the Speed of Expressions and Functions
8.12.2. The MySQL Benchmark Suite
8.12.3. Using Your Own Benchmarks
8.12.4. Measuring Performance with performance_schema
8.12.5. Examining Thread Information
9. Language Structure
9.1. Literal Values
9.1.1. String Literals
9.1.2. Number Literals
9.1.3. Date and Time Literals
9.1.4. Hexadecimal Literals
9.1.5. Boolean Literals
9.1.6. Bit-Field Literals
9.1.7. NULL Values
9.2. Schema Object Names
9.2.1. Identifier Qualifiers
9.2.2. Identifier Case Sensitivity
9.2.3. Mapping of Identifiers to File Names
9.2.4. Function Name Parsing and Resolution
9.3. Reserved Words
9.4. User-Defined Variables
9.5. Expression Syntax
9.6. Comment Syntax
10. Globalization
10.1. Character Set Support
10.1.1. Character Sets and Collations in General
10.1.2. Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
10.1.3. Specifying Character Sets and Collations
10.1.4. Connection Character Sets and Collations
10.1.5. Configuring the Character Set and Collation for Applications
10.1.6. Character Set for Error Messages
10.1.7. Collation Issues
10.1.8. String Repertoire
10.1.9. Operations Affected by Character Set Support
10.1.10. Unicode Support
10.1.11. Upgrading from Previous to Current Unicode Support
10.1.12. UTF-8 for Metadata
10.1.13. Column Character Set Conversion
10.1.14. Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports
10.2. Setting the Error Message Language
10.3. Adding a Character Set
10.3.1. Character Definition Arrays
10.3.2. String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets
10.3.3. Multi-Byte Character Support for Complex Character Sets
10.4. Adding a Collation to a Character Set
10.4.1. Collation Implementation Types
10.4.2. Choosing a Collation ID
10.4.3. Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set
10.4.4. Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set
10.5. Character Set Configuration
10.6. MySQL Server Time Zone Support
10.6.1. Staying Current with Time Zone Changes
10.6.2. Time Zone Leap Second Support
10.7. MySQL Server Locale Support
11. Data Types
11.1. Data Type Overview
11.1.1. Numeric Type Overview
11.1.2. Date and Time Type Overview
11.1.3. String Type Overview
11.2. Numeric Types
11.2.1. Integer Types (Exact Value) - INTEGER, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, BIGINT
11.2.2. Fixed-Point Types (Exact Value) - DECIMAL, NUMERIC
11.2.3. Floating-Point Types (Approximate Value) - FLOAT, DOUBLE
11.2.4. Bit-Value Type - BIT
11.2.5. Numeric Type Attributes
11.2.6. Out-of-Range and Overflow Handling
11.3. Date and Time Types
11.3.1. The DATE, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP Types
11.3.2. The TIME Type
11.3.3. The YEAR Type
11.3.4. YEAR(2) Limitations and Migrating to YEAR(4)
11.3.5. Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP
11.3.6. Fractional Seconds in Time Values
11.3.7. Conversion Between Date and Time Types
11.3.8. Two-Digit Years in Dates
11.4. String Types
11.4.1. The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
11.4.2. The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
11.4.3. The BLOB and TEXT Types
11.4.4. The ENUM Type
11.4.5. The SET Type
11.5. Data Type Default Values
11.6. Data Type Storage Requirements
11.7. Choosing the Right Type for a Column
11.8. Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
12. Functions and Operators
12.1. Function and Operator Reference
12.2. Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
12.3. Operators
12.3.1. Operator Precedence
12.3.2. Comparison Functions and Operators
12.3.3. Logical Operators
12.3.4. Assignment Operators
12.4. Control Flow Functions
12.5. String Functions
12.5.1. String Comparison Functions
12.5.2. Regular Expressions
12.6. Numeric Functions and Operators
12.6.1. Arithmetic Operators
12.6.2. Mathematical Functions
12.7. Date and Time Functions
12.8. What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
12.9. Full-Text Search Functions
12.9.1. Natural Language Full-Text Searches
12.9.2. Boolean Full-Text Searches
12.9.3. Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
12.9.4. Full-Text Stopwords
12.9.5. Full-Text Restrictions
12.9.6. Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
12.9.7. Adding a Collation for Full-Text Indexing
12.10. Cast Functions and Operators
12.11. XML Functions
12.12. Bit Functions
12.13. Encryption and Compression Functions
12.14. Information Functions
12.15. Miscellaneous Functions
12.16. Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
12.16.1. GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions
12.16.2. GROUP BY Modifiers
12.16.3. MySQL Extensions to GROUP BY
12.17. Spatial Extensions
12.17.1. Introduction to MySQL Spatial Support
12.17.2. The OpenGIS Geometry Model
12.17.3. Supported Spatial Data Formats
12.17.4. Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database
12.17.5. Spatial Analysis Functions
12.17.6. Optimizing Spatial Analysis
12.17.7. MySQL Conformance and Compatibility
12.18. Precision Math
12.18.1. Types of Numeric Values
12.18.2. DECIMAL Data Type Changes
12.18.3. Expression Handling
12.18.4. Rounding Behavior
12.18.5. Precision Math Examples
13. SQL Statement Syntax
13.1. Data Definition Statements
13.1.1. ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.2. ALTER EVENT Syntax
13.1.4. ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.5. ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
13.1.6. ALTER SERVER Syntax
13.1.7. ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.9. ALTER VIEW Syntax
13.1.10. CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.11. CREATE EVENT Syntax
13.1.12. CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.13. CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.16. CREATE SERVER Syntax
13.1.17. CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.19. CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.20. CREATE VIEW Syntax
13.1.21. DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.22. DROP EVENT Syntax
13.1.23. DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.24. DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.25. DROP LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.27. DROP SERVER Syntax
13.1.28. DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.29. DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.30. DROP TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.31. DROP VIEW Syntax
13.1.32. RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.1.33. TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
13.2. Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1. CALL Syntax
13.2.2. DELETE Syntax
13.2.3. DO Syntax
13.2.4. HANDLER Syntax
13.2.5. INSERT Syntax
13.2.6. LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
13.2.7. LOAD XML Syntax
13.2.8. REPLACE Syntax
13.2.9. SELECT Syntax
13.2.10. Subquery Syntax
13.2.11. UPDATE Syntax
13.3. MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements
13.3.2. Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.3.3. Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.3.6. SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.3.7. XA Transactions
13.4. Replication Statements
13.4.1. SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.4.2. SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.5. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements
13.5.1. PREPARE Syntax
13.5.2. EXECUTE Syntax
13.5.4. Automatic Prepared Statement Repreparation
13.6. MySQL Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.1. BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.2. Statement Label Syntax
13.6.3. DECLARE Syntax
13.6.4. Variables in Stored Programs
13.6.5. Flow Control Statements
13.6.6. Cursors
13.6.7. Condition Handling
13.7. Database Administration Statements
13.7.1. Account Management Statements
13.7.2. Table Maintenance Statements
13.7.3. Plugin and User-Defined Function Statements
13.7.4. SET Syntax
13.7.5. SHOW Syntax
13.7.6. Other Administrative Statements
13.8. MySQL Utility Statements
13.8.1. DESCRIBE Syntax
13.8.2. EXPLAIN Syntax
13.8.3. HELP Syntax
13.8.4. USE Syntax
14. Storage Engines
14.1. Setting the Storage Engine
14.2. Overview of MySQL Storage Engine Architecture
14.2.1. Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
14.2.2. The Common Database Server Layer
14.3. The InnoDB Storage Engine
14.3.1. Introduction to InnoDB 1.1
14.3.2. Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine
14.3.3. Upgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine
14.3.4. Downgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine
14.3.5. InnoDB Concepts and Architecture
14.3.6. InnoDB Features for Flexibility, Ease of Use and Reliability
14.3.7. InnoDB Configuration
14.3.8. InnoDB Administration
14.3.9. InnoDB Tablespace Management
14.3.10. InnoDB Table Management
14.3.11. InnoDB Compressed Tables
14.3.12. InnoDB File-Format Management
14.3.13. InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats
14.3.14. InnoDB Disk I/O and File Space Management
14.3.15. InnoDB Fast Index Creation
14.3.16. InnoDB Performance Tuning
14.3.17. InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
14.3.18. InnoDB Backup and Recovery
14.3.19. InnoDB and MySQL Replication
14.3.20. InnoDB Troubleshooting
14.4. The MyISAM Storage Engine
14.4.1. MyISAM Startup Options
14.4.2. Space Needed for Keys
14.4.3. MyISAM Table Storage Formats
14.4.4. MyISAM Table Problems
14.5. The MEMORY Storage Engine
14.6. The CSV Storage Engine
14.6.1. Repairing and Checking CSV Tables
14.6.2. CSV Limitations
14.7. The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
14.8. The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
14.9. The MERGE Storage Engine
14.9.1. MERGE Table Advantages and Disadvantages
14.9.2. MERGE Table Problems
14.10. The FEDERATED Storage Engine
14.10.1. FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview
14.10.2. How to Create FEDERATED Tables
14.10.3. FEDERATED Storage Engine Notes and Tips
14.10.4. FEDERATED Storage Engine Resources
14.11. The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
14.12. Other Storage Engines
15. High Availability and Scalability
15.1. Oracle VM Template for MySQL Enterprise Edition
15.2. Overview of MySQL with DRBD/Pacemaker/Corosync/Oracle Linux
15.3. Overview of MySQL with Windows Failover Clustering
15.4. Using MySQL within an Amazon EC2 Instance
15.4.1. Setting Up MySQL on an EC2 AMI
15.4.2. EC2 Instance Limitations
15.4.3. Deploying a MySQL Database Using EC2
15.5. Using ZFS Replication
15.5.1. Using ZFS for File System Replication
15.5.2. Configuring MySQL for ZFS Replication
15.5.3. Handling MySQL Recovery with ZFS
15.6. Using MySQL with memcached
15.6.1. Installing memcached
15.6.2. Using memcached
15.6.3. Developing a memcached Application
15.6.4. Getting memcached Statistics
15.6.5. memcached FAQ
15.7. MySQL Proxy
15.7.1. MySQL Proxy Supported Platforms
15.7.2. Installing MySQL Proxy
15.7.3. MySQL Proxy Command Options
15.7.4. MySQL Proxy Scripting
15.7.5. Using MySQL Proxy
15.7.6. MySQL Proxy FAQ
16. Replication
16.1. Replication Configuration
16.1.1. How to Set Up Replication
16.1.2. Replication Formats
16.1.3. Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables
16.1.4. Common Replication Administration Tasks
16.2. Replication Implementation
16.2.1. Replication Implementation Details
16.2.2. Replication Relay and Status Logs
16.2.3. How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules
16.3. Replication Solutions
16.3.1. Using Replication for Backups
16.3.2. Using Replication with Different Master and Slave Storage Engines
16.3.3. Using Replication for Scale-Out
16.3.4. Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
16.3.5. Improving Replication Performance
16.3.6. Switching Masters During Failover
16.3.7. Setting Up Replication Using SSL
16.3.8. Semisynchronous Replication
16.4. Replication Notes and Tips
16.4.1. Replication Features and Issues
16.4.2. Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
16.4.3. Upgrading a Replication Setup
16.4.4. Troubleshooting Replication
16.4.5. How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
17. MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2
17.1. MySQL Cluster Overview
17.1.1. MySQL Cluster Core Concepts
17.1.2. MySQL Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
17.1.3. MySQL Cluster Hardware, Software, and Networking Requirements
17.1.4. MySQL Cluster Development History
17.1.5. MySQL Server Using InnoDB Compared with MySQL Cluster
17.1.6. Known Limitations of MySQL Cluster
17.2. MySQL Cluster Installation and Upgrades
17.2.1. Installing MySQL Cluster on Linux
17.2.2. Installing MySQL Cluster on Windows
17.2.3. Initial Configuration of MySQL Cluster
17.2.4. Initial Startup of MySQL Cluster
17.2.5. MySQL Cluster Example with Tables and Data
17.2.6. Safe Shutdown and Restart of MySQL Cluster
17.2.7. Upgrading and Downgrading MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2
17.3. Configuration of MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2
17.3.1. Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster
17.3.2. MySQL Cluster Configuration Files
17.3.3. Overview of MySQL Cluster Configuration Parameters
17.3.4. MySQL Server Options and Variables for MySQL Cluster
17.3.5. Using High-Speed Interconnects with MySQL Cluster
17.4. MySQL Cluster Programs
17.4.1. ndbd — The MySQL Cluster Data Node Daemon
17.4.2. ndbinfo_select_all — Select From ndbinfo Tables
17.4.3. ndbmtd — The MySQL Cluster Data Node Daemon (Multi-Threaded)
17.4.4. ndb_mgmd — The MySQL Cluster Management Server Daemon
17.4.5. ndb_mgm — The MySQL Cluster Management Client
17.4.6. ndb_blob_tool — Check and Repair BLOB and TEXT columns of MySQL Cluster Tables
17.4.7. ndb_config — Extract MySQL Cluster Configuration Information
17.4.8. ndb_cpcd — Automate Testing for NDB Development
17.4.9. ndb_delete_all — Delete All Rows from an NDB Table
17.4.10. ndb_desc — Describe NDB Tables
17.4.11. ndb_drop_index — Drop Index from an NDB Table
17.4.12. ndb_drop_table — Drop an NDB Table
17.4.13. ndb_error_reporter — NDB Error-Reporting Utility
17.4.14. ndb_index_stat — NDB Index Statistics Utility
17.4.15. ndb_print_backup_file — Print NDB Backup File Contents
17.4.16. ndb_print_schema_file — Print NDB Schema File Contents
17.4.17. ndb_print_sys_file — Print NDB System File Contents
17.4.18. ndbd_redo_log_reader — Check and Print Content of Cluster Redo Log
17.4.19. ndb_restore — Restore a MySQL Cluster Backup
17.4.20. ndb_select_all — Print Rows from an NDB Table
17.4.21. ndb_select_count — Print Row Counts for NDB Tables
17.4.22. ndb_show_tables — Display List of NDB Tables
17.4.23. — NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator
17.4.24. ndb_waiter — Wait for MySQL Cluster to Reach a Given Status
17.4.25. Options Common to MySQL Cluster Programs — Options Common to MySQL Cluster Programs
17.5. Management of MySQL Cluster
17.5.1. Summary of MySQL Cluster Start Phases
17.5.2. Commands in the MySQL Cluster Management Client
17.5.3. Online Backup of MySQL Cluster
17.5.4. MySQL Server Usage for MySQL Cluster
17.5.5. Performing a Rolling Restart of a MySQL Cluster
17.5.6. Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster
17.5.7. MySQL Cluster Log Messages
17.5.8. MySQL Cluster Single User Mode
17.5.9. Quick Reference: MySQL Cluster SQL Statements
17.5.10. The ndbinfo MySQL Cluster Information Database
17.5.11. MySQL Cluster Security Issues
17.5.12. MySQL Cluster Disk Data Tables
17.5.13. Adding MySQL Cluster Data Nodes Online
17.5.14. Distributed MySQL Privileges for MySQL Cluster
17.5.15. NDB API Statistics Counters and Variables
17.6. MySQL Cluster Replication
17.6.1. MySQL Cluster Replication: Abbreviations and Symbols
17.6.2. General Requirements for MySQL Cluster Replication
17.6.3. Known Issues in MySQL Cluster Replication
17.6.4. MySQL Cluster Replication Schema and Tables
17.6.5. Preparing the MySQL Cluster for Replication
17.6.6. Starting MySQL Cluster Replication (Single Replication Channel)
17.6.7. Using Two Replication Channels for MySQL Cluster Replication
17.6.8. Implementing Failover with MySQL Cluster Replication
17.6.9. MySQL Cluster Backups With MySQL Cluster Replication
17.6.10. MySQL Cluster Replication: Multi-Master and Circular Replication
17.6.11. MySQL Cluster Replication Conflict Resolution
17.7. MySQL Cluster Release Notes
18. Partitioning
18.1. Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
18.2. Partitioning Types
18.2.1. RANGE Partitioning
18.2.2. LIST Partitioning
18.2.3. COLUMNS Partitioning
18.2.4. HASH Partitioning
18.2.5. KEY Partitioning
18.2.6. Subpartitioning
18.2.7. How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL
18.3. Partition Management
18.3.1. Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
18.3.2. Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
18.3.3. Maintenance of Partitions
18.3.4. Obtaining Information About Partitions
18.4. Partition Pruning
18.5. Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
18.5.1. Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys
18.5.2. Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines
18.5.3. Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions
18.5.4. Partitioning and Table-Level Locking
19. Stored Programs and Views
19.1. Defining Stored Programs
19.2. Using Stored Routines (Procedures and Functions)
19.2.1. Stored Routine Syntax
19.2.2. Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges
19.2.3. Stored Routine Metadata
19.2.4. Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
19.3. Using Triggers
19.3.1. Trigger Syntax and Examples
19.3.2. Trigger Metadata
19.4. Using the Event Scheduler
19.4.1. Event Scheduler Overview
19.4.2. Event Scheduler Configuration
19.4.3. Event Syntax
19.4.4. Event Metadata
19.4.5. Event Scheduler Status
19.4.6. The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
19.5. Using Views
19.5.1. View Syntax
19.5.2. View Processing Algorithms
19.5.3. Updatable and Insertable Views
19.5.4. View Metadata
19.6. Access Control for Stored Programs and Views
19.7. Binary Logging of Stored Programs
20.28. INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables for InnoDB
20.29. INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables for MySQL Cluster
20.29.2. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ndb_transid_mysql_connection_map Table
20.30. Thread Pool INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
20.31. Extensions to SHOW Statements
21. MySQL Performance Schema
21.1. Performance Schema Quick Start
21.2. Performance Schema Configuration
21.2.1. Performance Schema Build Configuration
21.2.2. Performance Schema Startup Configuration
21.2.3. Performance Schema Runtime Configuration
21.3. Performance Schema Queries
21.4. Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions
21.5. Performance Schema Status Monitoring
21.6. Performance Schema General Table Characteristics
21.7. Performance Schema Table Descriptions
21.7.1. Performance Schema Table Index
21.7.2. Performance Schema Setup Tables
21.7.3. Performance Schema Instance Tables
21.7.4. Performance Schema Wait Event Tables
21.7.5. Performance Schema Summary Tables
21.7.6. Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables
21.8. Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference
21.9. Performance Schema System Variables
21.10. Performance Schema Status Variables
21.11. Performance Schema and Plugins
21.12. Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems
22. Connectors and APIs
22.1. MySQL Connector/ODBC
22.1.1. Connector/ODBC Versions
22.1.2. Connector/ODBC Introduction
22.1.3. Connector/ODBC Installation
22.1.4. Configuring Connector/ODBC
22.1.5. Connector/ODBC Examples
22.1.6. Connector/ODBC Reference
22.1.7. Connector/ODBC Notes and Tips
22.1.8. Connector/ODBC Support
22.2. MySQL Connector/Net
22.2.1. Connector/Net Versions
22.2.2. Connector/Net Installation
22.2.3. Connector/Net Visual Studio Integration
22.2.4. Connector/Net Tutorials
22.2.5. Connector/Net Programming
22.2.6. Connector/Net Connection String Options Reference
22.2.7. Connector/Net Support for Windows Store
22.2.8. EF 5 Support
22.2.9. Connector/Net API Reference
22.2.10. Connector/Net Support
22.2.11. Connector/Net FAQ
22.3. MySQL Connector/J
22.3.1. Overview of MySQL Connector/J
22.3.2. Connector/J Versions
22.3.3. Connector/J Installation
22.3.4. Connector/J Examples
22.3.5. Connector/J (JDBC) Reference
22.3.6. JDBC Concepts
22.3.7. Connection Pooling with Connector/J
22.3.8. Multi-Host Connections
22.3.9. Using the Connector/J Interceptor Classes
22.3.10. Using Connector/J with Tomcat
22.3.11. Using Connector/J with JBoss
22.3.12. Using Connector/J with Spring
22.3.13. Using Connector/J with GlassFish
22.3.14. Troubleshooting Connector/J Applications
22.3.15. Known Issues and Limitations
22.3.16. Connector/J Support
22.4. MySQL Connector/C++
22.4.1. How to Get MySQL Connector/C++
22.4.2. Installing MySQL Connector/C++ from a Binary Distribution
22.4.3. Installing MySQL Connector/C++ from Source
22.4.4. Building MySQL Connector/C++ Windows Applications with Microsoft Visual Studio
22.4.5. Building MySQL Connector/C++ Linux Applications with NetBeans
22.4.6. MySQL Connector/C++ Getting Started: Usage Examples
22.4.7. MySQL Connector/C++ Tutorials
22.4.8. MySQL Connector/C++ Debug Tracing
22.4.9. MySQL Connector/C++ Usage Notes
22.4.10. MySQL Connector/C++ Known Bugs and Issues
22.4.11. MySQL Connector/C++ Support
22.5. MySQL Connector/C
22.5.1. MySQL Connector/C Versions
22.5.2. MySQL Connector/C Supported Platforms
22.5.3. MySQL Connector/C Distribution Contents
22.5.4. Installing MySQL Connector/C
22.5.5. Building MySQL Connector/C Applications
22.6. MySQL Connector/Python
22.6.1. Guidelines for Python Developers
22.6.2. Connector/Python Versions
22.6.3. Connector/Python Installation
22.6.4. Connector/Python Coding Examples
22.6.5. Connector/Python Tutorials
22.6.6. Connector/Python Connection Arguments
22.6.7. Connector/Python Other Topics
22.6.8. Connector/Python API Reference
22.7. libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
22.7.1. Compiling Programs with libmysqld
22.7.2. Restrictions When Using the Embedded MySQL Server
22.7.3. Options with the Embedded Server
22.7.4. Embedded Server Examples
22.8. MySQL C API
22.8.1. MySQL C API Implementations
22.8.2. Simultaneous MySQL Server and MySQL Connector/C Installations
22.8.3. Example C API Client Programs
22.8.4. Building and Running C API Client Programs
22.8.5. C API Data Structures
22.8.6. C API Function Overview
22.8.7. C API Function Descriptions
22.8.8. C API Prepared Statements
22.8.9. C API Prepared Statement Data Structures
22.8.10. C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
22.8.11. C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
22.8.12. C API Threaded Function Descriptions
22.8.13. C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
22.8.14. C API Client Plugin Functions
22.8.15. Common Questions and Problems When Using the C API
22.8.16. Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior
22.8.17. C API Support for Multiple Statement Execution
22.8.18. C API Prepared Statement Problems
22.8.19. C API Prepared Statement Handling of Date and Time Values
22.8.20. C API Support for Prepared CALL Statements
22.9.1. Overview of the MySQL PHP drivers
22.9.2. Original MySQL API (Mysql)
22.9.3. MySQL Improved Extension (Mysqli)
22.9.4. MySQL Functions (PDO_MYSQL) (MySQL (PDO))
22.9.5. MySQL Native Driver (Mysqlnd)
22.9.6. Mysqlnd replication and load balancing plugin (mysqlnd_ms)
22.9.7. Mysqlnd query result cache plugin (mysqlnd_qc)
22.9.8. Mysqlnd user handler plugin (mysqlnd_uh)
22.9.9. Mysqlnd connection multiplexing plugin (mysqlnd_mux)
22.9.10. Mysqlnd Memcache plugin (mysqlnd_memcache)
22.9.11. Connector/PHP
22.9.12. Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
22.9.13. Enabling Both mysql and mysqli in PHP
22.10. MySQL Perl API
22.11. MySQL Python API
22.12. MySQL Ruby APIs
22.12.1. The MySQL/Ruby API
22.12.2. The Ruby/MySQL API
22.13. MySQL Tcl API
22.14. MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
23. Extending MySQL
23.1. MySQL Internals
23.1.1. MySQL Threads
23.1.2. The MySQL Test Suite
23.2. The MySQL Plugin API
23.2.1. Plugin API Characteristics
23.2.2. Plugin API Components
23.2.3. Types of Plugins
23.2.4. Writing Plugins
23.2.5. MySQL Services for Plugins
23.3. Adding New Functions to MySQL
23.3.1. Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
23.3.2. Adding a New User-Defined Function
23.3.3. Adding a New Native Function
23.4. Debugging and Porting MySQL
23.4.1. Debugging a MySQL Server
23.4.2. Debugging a MySQL Client
23.4.3. The DBUG Package
24. MySQL Enterprise Edition
24.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor
24.2. MySQL Enterprise Backup
24.3. MySQL Enterprise Security
24.4. MySQL Enterprise Audit
24.5. MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool
25. MySQL Workbench
26. MySQL for Excel
26.1. Installing and Configuring
26.2. Edit MySQL Data in Excel
26.3. Import MySQL Data into Excel
26.4. Append Excel Data into MySQL
26.5. Export Excel Data into MySQL
26.6. MySQL for Excel FAQ
A. Licenses for Third-Party Components
A.1. Ant-Contrib License
A.2. ANTLR 3 License
A.3. ANTLR 3.3 License
A.4. Boost Library License
A.5. Bouncy Castle 1.7 License
A.6. c3p0 JDBC Library License
A.7. Django 1.5.1 License
A.8. dtoa.c License
A.9. Editline Library (libedit) License
A.10. FindGTest.cmake License
A.11. Fred Fish's Dbug Library License
A.12. getarg License
A.13. GLib License (for MySQL Proxy)
A.14. GNU General Public License Version 2.0, June 1991
A.15. GNU Lesser General Public License Version 2.1, February 1999
A.16. GNU Libtool License
A.17. GNU Readline License
A.18. Google Controlling Master Thread I/O Rate Patch License
A.19. Google Perftools (TCMalloc utility) License
A.20. Google SMP Patch License
A.21. jboss-common-jdbc-wrapper.jar License
A.22. License
A.23. Libaio License
A.24. libevent License
A.25. Libiconv License
A.26. libintl License
A.27. Linux-PAM License
A.28. LPeg Library License
A.29. Lua (liblua) License
A.30. LuaFileSystem Library License
A.31. md5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5) License
A.32. memcached License
A.33. nt_servc (Windows NT Service class library) License
A.34. OpenPAM License
A.35. OpenSSL v1.0 License
A.36. Paramiko License
A.37. PCRE License
A.38. Percona Multiple I/O Threads Patch License
A.39. Python License
A.40. Red HAT RPM Spec File License
A.41. RegEX-Spencer Library License
A.42. RFC 3174 - US Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1) License
A.43. Richard A. O'Keefe String Library License
A.44. SHA-1 in C License
A.45. Simple Logging Facade for Java (SLF4J) License
A.46. zlib License
A.47. ZLIB.NET License
B. MySQL 5.5 Frequently Asked Questions
B.1. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: General
B.2. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Storage Engines
B.3. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Server SQL Mode
B.4. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Stored Procedures and Functions
B.5. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Triggers
B.6. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Views
B.8. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Migration
B.9. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Security
B.10. MySQL FAQ: MySQL 5.5 and MySQL Cluster
B.11. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
B.12. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Connectors & APIs
B.13. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Replication
B.14. MySQL 5.5 FAQ: MySQL Enterprise Scalability Thread Pool
C. Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems
C.1. Sources of Error Information
C.2. Types of Error Values
C.3. Server Error Codes and Messages
C.4. Client Error Codes and Messages
C.5. Problems and Common Errors
C.5.1. How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
C.5.2. Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
C.5.3. Installation-Related Issues
C.5.4. Administration-Related Issues
C.5.5. Query-Related Issues
C.5.6. Optimizer-Related Issues
C.5.7. Table Definition-Related Issues
C.5.8. Known Issues in MySQL
D. MySQL Release Notes
E. Restrictions and Limits
E.1. Restrictions on Stored Programs
E.2. Restrictions on Condition Handling
E.3. Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
E.4. Restrictions on Subqueries
E.5. Restrictions on Views
E.6. Restrictions on XA Transactions
E.7. Restrictions on Character Sets
E.8. Restrictions on Performance Schema
E.9. Restrictions on Pluggable Authentication
E.10. Limits in MySQL
E.10.1. Limits of Joins
E.10.2. Limits on Number of Databases and Tables
E.10.3. Limits on Table Size
E.10.4. Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size
E.10.5. Limits Imposed by .frm File Structure
E.10.6. Windows Platform Limitations
MySQL Glossary
General Index
C Function Index
Command Index
Function Index
Join Types Index
Operator Index
Option Index
Privileges Index
SQL Modes Index
Statement/Syntax Index
System Variable Index
Status Variable Index
Transaction Isolation Level Index