9.4. The Configuration File

In order to create a custom kernel configuration file and build a custom kernel, the full FreeBSD source tree must first be installed.

If /usr/src/ does not exist or it is empty, source has not been installed. Source can be installed using svn, which is described in Section A.5, “Using Subversion, or by installing the src distribution using sysinstall(8). This distribution can be selected by navigating to the Configuration and then to the Distributions menu within sysinstall(8).

Once source is installed, review the contents of /usr/src/sys. This directory contains a number of subdirectories, including those which represent the following supported architectures: amd64, i386, ia64, pc98, powerpc, and sparc64. Everything inside a particular architecture's directory deals with that architecture only and the rest of the code is machine independent code common to all platforms. Each supported architecture has a conf subdirectory which contains the GENERIC kernel configuration file for that architecture.

Do not make edits to GENERIC. Instead, copy the file to a different name and make edits to the copy. The convention is to use a name with all capital letters. When maintaining multiple FreeBSD machines with different hardware, it is a good idea to name it after the machine's hostname. This example creates a custom configuration file for the amd64 architecture:

# cd /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf


When finished customizing the kernel configuration file, save a backup copy to a location outside of /usr/src.

Alternately, keep the kernel configuration file elsewhere and create a symbolic link to the file:

# cd /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf
# mkdir /root/kernels
# cp GENERIC /root/kernels/MYKERNEL
# ln -s /root/kernels/MYKERNEL

The configuration file MYKERNEL can now be customized with any ASCII text editor. The default editor is vi, though an easier editor for beginners, called ee, is also installed with FreeBSD.

The format of the kernel configuration file is simple. Each line contains a keyword that represents a device or subsystem, an argument, and a brief description. Any text after a # is considered a comment and ignored. To remove kernel support for a device or subsystem, put a # at the beginning of the line representing that device or subsystem. Do not add or remove a # for any line that you do not understand.

In addition to the brief descriptions provided in this file, additional descriptions are contained in NOTES, which can be found in the same directory as GENERIC for that architecture. For architecture independent options, refer to /usr/src/sys/conf/NOTES.

An include directive is available for use in configuration files. This allows another configuration file to be included in the current one, making it easy to maintain small changes relative to an existing file. For example, if only a small number of additional options or drivers are required, this allows a delta to be maintained with respect to GENERIC:

include GENERIC

options         IPFIREWALL
options         DUMMYNET
options         IPDIVERT

Using this method, the local configuration file expresses local differences from a GENERIC kernel. As upgrades are performed, new features added to GENERIC will also be added to the local kernel unless they are specifically prevented using nooptions or nodevice. A comprehensive list of configuration directives and their descriptions may be found in config(5).


To build a file which contains all available options, run the following command as root:

# cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf && make LINT
ident          GENERIC

This is the identification of the kernel. Change this to the new kernel name, such as MYKERNEL. The value in the ident string will print when the kernel boots.

makeoptions     DEBUG=-g          # Build kernel with gdb(1) debug symbols

This option enables debugging information when passed to gcc(1).

options          SCHED_ULE         # ULE scheduler

The default system scheduler for FreeBSD. Keep this.

options          INET              # InterNETworking

Networking support. This is mandatory as most programs require at least loopback networking.

options          INET6             # IPv6 communications protocols

This enables the IPv6 communication protocols.

options          FFS               # Berkeley Fast Filesystem

This is the basic hard drive file system. Leave it in if the system boots from the hard disk.

options          SOFTUPDATES       # Enable FFS Soft Updates support

This option enables Soft Updates in the kernel which helps to speed up write access on the disks. Even when this functionality is provided by the kernel, it must be turned on for specific disks. Review the output of mount(8) to determine if Soft Updates is enabled. If the soft-updates option is not in the output, it can be activated using tunefs(8) for existing file systems or newfs(8) for new file systems.

options          UFS_ACL           # Support for access control lists

This option enables kernel support for access control lists (ACLs). This relies on the use of extended attributes and UFS2, and the feature is described in detail in Section 14.11, “Filesystem Access Control Lists (ACL)s”. ACLs are enabled by default and should not be disabled in the kernel if they have been used previously on a file system, as this will remove the ACLs, changing the way files are protected in unpredictable ways.

options          UFS_DIRHASH       # Improve performance on big directories

This option includes functionality to speed up disk operations on large directories, at the expense of using additional memory. Keep this for a large server or interactive workstation, and remove it from smaller systems where memory is at a premium and disk access speed is less important, such as a firewall.

options          MD_ROOT           # MD is a potential root device

This option enables support for a memory backed virtual disk used as a root device.

options          NFSCLIENT         # Network Filesystem Client
options          NFSSERVER         # Network Filesystem Server
options          NFS_ROOT          # NFS usable as /, requires NFSCLIENT

The network file system (NFS). These lines can be commented unless the system needs to mount partitions from a NFS file server over TCP/IP.

options          MSDOSFS           # MSDOS Filesystem

The MS-DOS® file system. Unless the system needs to mount a DOS formatted hard drive partition at boot time, comment this out. It will be automatically loaded the first time a DOS partition is mounted. The emulators/mtools package allows access to DOS floppies without having to mount and unmount them and does not require MSDOSFS.

options          CD9660            # ISO 9660 Filesystem

The ISO 9660 file system for CDROMs. Comment it out if the system does not have a CDROM drive or only mounts data CDs occasionally since it will be dynamically loaded the first time a data CD is mounted. Audio CDs do not need this file system.

options          PROCFS            # Process filesystem (requires PSEUDOFS)

The process file system. This is a pretend file system mounted on /proc which allows some programs to provide more information on what processes are running. Use of PROCFS is not required under most circumstances, as most debugging and monitoring tools have been adapted to run without PROCFS. The default installation will not mount this file system by default.

options          PSEUDOFS          # Pseudo-filesystem framework

Kernels making use of PROCFS must also include support for PSEUDOFS.

options          GEOM_PART_GPT     # GUID Partition Tables.

Adds support for GUID Partition Tables (GPT). GPT provides the ability to have a large number of partitions per disk, 128 in the standard configuration.

options          COMPAT_43         # Compatible with BSD 4.3 [KEEP THIS!]

Compatibility with 4.3BSD. Leave this in as some programs will act strangely if this is commented out.

options          COMPAT_FREEBSD4   # Compatible with FreeBSD4

This option is required to support applications compiled on older versions of FreeBSD that use older system call interfaces. It is recommended that this option be used on all i386™ systems that may run older applications. Platforms that gained support after FreeBSD 4.X, such as ia64 and SPARC64®, do not require this option.

options          COMPAT_FREEBSD5   # Compatible with FreeBSD5

This option is required to support applications compiled on FreeBSD 5.X versions that use FreeBSD 5.X system call interfaces.

options          COMPAT_FREEBSD6   # Compatible with FreeBSD6

This option is required to support applications compiled on FreeBSD 6.X versions that use FreeBSD 6.X system call interfaces.

options          COMPAT_FREEBSD7   # Compatible with FreeBSD7

This option is required on FreeBSD 8 and above to support applications compiled on FreeBSD 7.X versions that use FreeBSD 7.X system call interfaces.

options          SCSI_DELAY=5000  # Delay (in ms) before probing SCSI

This causes the kernel to pause for 5 seconds before probing each SCSI device in the system. If the system only has IDE hard drives, ignore this or lower the number to speed up booting. However, if FreeBSD has trouble recognizing the SCSI devices, the number will have to be raised again.

options          KTRACE            # ktrace(1) support

This enables kernel process tracing, which is useful in debugging.

options          SYSVSHM           # SYSV-style shared memory

This option provides for System V shared memory. The most common use of this is the XSHM extension in X, which many graphics-intensive programs will automatically take advantage of for extra speed. If Xorg is installed, include this.

options          SYSVMSG           # SYSV-style message queues

Support for System V messages. This option only adds a few hundred bytes to the kernel.

options          SYSVSEM           # SYSV-style semaphores

Support for System V semaphores. Less commonly used, but only adds a few hundred bytes to the kernel.


Using -p with ipcs(1) will list any processes using each of these System V facilities.

options 	     _KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B real-time extensions

Real-time extensions added in the 1993 POSIX®. Certain applications in the Ports Collection use these.

options          KBD_INSTALL_CDEV  # install a CDEV entry in /dev

This option is required to allow the creation of keyboard device nodes in /dev.

device          apic               # I/O APIC

This device enables the use of the I/O APIC for interrupt delivery. It can be used in both uni-processor and SMP kernels, but is required for SMP kernels. Add options SMP to include support for multiple processors.


This device exists only on the i386 architecture and this configuration line should not be used on other architectures.

device          eisa

Include this for systems with an EISA motherboard. This enables auto-detection and configuration support for all devices on the EISA bus.

device          pci

Include this for systems with a PCI motherboard. This enables auto-detection of PCI cards and gatewaying from the PCI to ISA bus.

# Floppy drives
device          fdc

This is the floppy drive controller.

# ATA and ATAPI devices
device          ata

This driver supports all ATA and ATAPI devices. Only one device ata line is needed for the kernel to detect all PCI ATA/ATAPI devices on modern machines.

device          atadisk                 # ATA disk drives

This is needed along with device ata for ATA disk drives.

device          ataraid                 # ATA RAID drives

This is needed along with device ata for ATA RAID drives.

device          atapicd                 # ATAPI CDROM drives

This is needed along with device ata for ATAPI CDROM drives.

device          atapifd                 # ATAPI floppy drives

This is needed along with device ata for ATAPI floppy drives.

device          atapist                 # ATAPI tape drives

This is needed along with device ata for ATAPI tape drives.

options         ATA_STATIC_ID           # Static device numbering

This makes the controller number static. Without this, the device numbers are dynamically allocated.

# SCSI Controllers
device          ahb        # EISA AHA1742 family
device          ahc        # AHA2940 and onboard AIC7xxx devices
options         AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT    # Print register bitfields in debug
                                        # output.  Adds ~128k to driver.
device          ahd        # AHA39320/29320 and onboard AIC79xx devices
options         AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT    # Print register bitfields in debug
                                        # output.  Adds ~215k to driver.
device          amd        # AMD 53C974 (Teckram DC-390(T))
device          isp        # Qlogic family
#device         ispfw      # Firmware for QLogic HBAs- normally a module
device          mpt        # LSI-Logic MPT-Fusion
#device         ncr        # NCR/Symbios Logic
device          sym        # NCR/Symbios Logic (newer chipsets + those of `ncr')
device          trm        # Tekram DC395U/UW/F DC315U adapters

device          adv        # Advansys SCSI adapters
device          adw        # Advansys wide SCSI adapters
device          aha        # Adaptec 154x SCSI adapters
device          aic        # Adaptec 15[012]x SCSI adapters, AIC-6[23]60.
device          bt         # Buslogic/Mylex MultiMaster SCSI adapters

device          ncv        # NCR 53C500
device          nsp        # Workbit Ninja SCSI-3
device          stg        # TMC 18C30/18C50

In this section, comment out any SCSI controllers not on the system. For an IDE only system, these lines can be removed. The *_REG_PRETTY_PRINT lines are debugging options for their respective drivers.

# SCSI peripherals
device          scbus      # SCSI bus (required for SCSI)
device          ch         # SCSI media changers
device          da         # Direct Access (disks)
device          sa         # Sequential Access (tape etc)
device          cd         # CD
device          pass       # Passthrough device (direct SCSI access)
device          ses        # SCSI Environmental Services (and SAF-TE)

Comment out any SCSI peripherals not on the system. If the system only has IDE hardware, these lines can be removed completely.


The USB umass(4) driver and a few other drivers use the SCSI subsystem even though they are not real SCSI devices. Do not remove SCSI support if any such drivers are included in the kernel configuration.

# RAID controllers interfaced to the SCSI subsystem
device          amr        # AMI MegaRAID
device          arcmsr     # Areca SATA II RAID
device          asr        # DPT SmartRAID V, VI and Adaptec SCSI RAID
device          ciss       # Compaq Smart RAID 5*
device          dpt        # DPT Smartcache III, IV - See NOTES for options
device          hptmv      # Highpoint RocketRAID 182x
device          hptrr      # Highpoint RocketRAID 17xx, 22xx, 23xx, 25xx
device          iir        # Intel Integrated RAID
device          ips        # IBM (Adaptec) ServeRAID
device          mly        # Mylex AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID
device          twa        # 3ware 9000 series PATA/SATA RAID

# RAID controllers
device          aac        # Adaptec FSA RAID
device          aacp       # SCSI passthrough for aac (requires CAM)
device          ida        # Compaq Smart RAID
device          mfi        # LSI MegaRAID SAS
device          mlx        # Mylex DAC960 family
device          pst        # Promise Supertrak SX6000
device          twe        # 3ware ATA RAID

Supported RAID controllers. If the system does not have any of these, comment them out or remove them.

# atkbdc0 controls both the keyboard and the PS/2 mouse
device          atkbdc     # AT keyboard controller

The atkbdc keyboard controller provides I/O services for the AT keyboard and PS/2 style pointing devices. This controller is required by atkbd(4) and psm(4).

device          atkbd      # AT keyboard

The atkbd(4) driver, together with the atkbdc(4) controller, provides access to the AT 84 keyboard or the AT enhanced keyboard which is connected to the AT keyboard controller.

device          psm        # PS/2 mouse

Use this device if the mouse plugs into the PS/2 mouse port.

device          kbdmux        # keyboard multiplexer

Basic support for keyboard multiplexing. If the system does not use more than one keyboard, this line can be safely removed.

device          vga        # VGA video card driver

The vga(4) video card driver.

device          splash     # Splash screen and screen saver support

Required by the boot splash screen and screen savers.

# syscons is the default console driver, resembling a SCO console
device          sc

sc(4) is the default console driver and resembles a SCO console. Since most full-screen programs access the console through a terminal database library like termcap, it should not matter whether this or vt, the VT220 compatible console driver, is used. When a user logs in, the TERM variable can be set to scoansi if full-screen programs have trouble running under this console.

# Enable this for the pcvt (VT220 compatible) console driver
#device          vt
#options         XSERVER          # support for X server on a vt console
#options         FAT_CURSOR       # start with block cursor

This is a VT220-compatible console driver, backward compatible to VT100/102. It works well on some laptops which have hardware incompatibilities with sc. Users may need to set TERM to vt100 or vt220 after login. This driver is useful when connecting to a large number of different machines over the network, where termcap or terminfo entries for the sc device are not available as vt100 should be available on virtually any platform.

device          agp

Include this if the system has an AGP card. This will enable support for AGP and AGP GART for boards which have these features.

# Add suspend/resume support for the i8254.
device           pmtimer

Timer device driver for power management events, such as APM and ACPI.

# PCCARD (PCMCIA) support
# PCMCIA and cardbus bridge support
device          cbb               # cardbus (yenta) bridge
device          pccard            # PC Card (16-bit) bus
device          cardbus           # CardBus (32-bit) bus

PCMCIA support. Keep this on laptop systems.

# Serial (COM) ports
device          sio               # 8250, 16[45]50 based serial ports

These are the serial ports referred to as COM ports in Windows®.


If the system has an internal modem on COM4 and a serial port at COM2, change the IRQ of the modem to 2. For a multiport serial card, refer to sio(4) for more information on the proper values to add to /boot/device.hints. Some video cards, notably those based on S3 chips, use I/O addresses in the form of 0x*2e8. Since many cheap serial cards do not fully decode the 16-bit I/O address space, they clash with these cards, making the COM4 port practically unavailable.

Each serial port is required to have a unique IRQ and the default IRQs for COM3 and COM4 cannot be used. The exception is multiport cards where shared interrupts are supported.

# Parallel port
device          ppc

This is the ISA bus parallel port interface.

device          ppbus      # Parallel port bus (required)

Provides support for the parallel port bus.

device          lpt        # Printer

Adds support for parallel port printers.


All three of the above are required to enable parallel printer support.

device          ppi        # Parallel port interface device

The general-purpose I/O (geek port) + IEEE1284 I/O.

#device         vpo        # Requires scbus and da

This is for an Iomega Zip drive. It requires scbus and da support. Best performance is achieved with ports in EPP 1.9 mode.

#device         puc

Uncomment this device if the system has a dumb serial or parallel PCI card that is supported by the puc(4) glue driver.

# PCI Ethernet NICs.
device          de         # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (Tulip)
device          em         # Intel PRO/1000 adapter Gigabit Ethernet Card
device          ixgb       # Intel PRO/10GbE Ethernet Card
device          txp        # 3Com 3cR990 (Typhoon)
device          vx         # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (Vortex)

Various PCI network card drivers. Comment out or remove any of these which are not present in the system.

# PCI Ethernet NICs that use the common MII bus controller code.
# NOTE: Be sure to keep the 'device miibus' line in order to use these NICs!
device          miibus     # MII bus support

MII bus support is required for some PCI 10/100 Ethernet NICs, namely those which use MII-compliant transceivers or implement transceiver control interfaces that operate like an MII. Adding device miibus to the kernel config pulls in support for the generic miibus API and all of the PHY drivers, including a generic one for PHYs that are not specifically handled by an individual driver.

device          bce        # Broadcom BCM5706/BCM5708 Gigabit Ethernet
device          bfe        # Broadcom BCM440x 10/100 Ethernet
device          bge        # Broadcom BCM570xx Gigabit Ethernet
device          dc         # DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
device          fxp        # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
device          lge        # Level 1 LXT1001 gigabit ethernet
device          msk        # Marvell/SysKonnect Yukon II Gigabit Ethernet
device          nge        # NatSemi DP83820 gigabit ethernet
device          nve        # nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet Networking
device          pcn        # AMD Am79C97x PCI 10/100 (precedence over 'lnc')
device          re         # RealTek 8139C+/8169/8169S/8110S
device          rl         # RealTek 8129/8139
device          sf         # Adaptec AIC-6915 (Starfire)
device          sis        # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
device          sk         # SysKonnect SK-984x & SK-982x gigabit Ethernet
device          ste        # Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
device          stge       # Sundance/Tamarack TC9021 gigabit Ethernet
device          ti         # Alteon Networks Tigon I/II gigabit Ethernet
device          tl         # Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
device          tx         # SMC EtherPower II (83c170 EPIC)
device          vge        # VIA VT612x gigabit ethernet
device          vr         # VIA Rhine, Rhine II
device          wb         # Winbond W89C840F
device          xl         # 3Com 3c90x (Boomerang, Cyclone)

Drivers that use the MII bus controller code.

# ISA Ethernet NICs.  pccard NICs included.
device          cs         # Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0 NIC
# 'device ed' requires 'device miibus'
device          ed         # NE[12]000, SMC Ultra, 3c503, DS8390 cards
device          ex         # Intel EtherExpress Pro/10 and Pro/10+
device          ep         # Etherlink III based cards
device          fe         # Fujitsu MB8696x based cards
device          ie         # EtherExpress 8/16, 3C507, StarLAN 10 etc.
device          lnc        # NE2100, NE32-VL Lance Ethernet cards
device          sn         # SMC's 9000 series of Ethernet chips
device          xe         # Xircom pccard Ethernet

# ISA devices that use the old ISA shims
#device         le

ISA Ethernet drivers. See /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/NOTES for details of which cards are supported by which driver.

# Wireless NIC cards
device          wlan            # 802.11 support

Generic 802.11 support. This line is required for wireless networking.

device          wlan_wep        # 802.11 WEP support
device          wlan_ccmp       # 802.11 CCMP support
device          wlan_tkip       # 802.11 TKIP support

Crypto support for 802.11 devices. These lines are needed on systems which use encryption and 802.11i security protocols.

device          an         # Aironet 4500/4800 802.11 wireless NICs.
device          ath             # Atheros pci/cardbus NIC's
device          ath_hal         # Atheros HAL (Hardware Access Layer)
device          ath_rate_sample # SampleRate tx rate control for ath
device          awi        # BayStack 660 and others
device          ral        # Ralink Technology RT2500 wireless NICs.
device          wi         # WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
#device         wl         # Older non 802.11 Wavelan wireless NIC.

Support for various wireless cards.

# Pseudo devices
device   loop          # Network loopback

This is the generic loopback device for TCP/IP. This is mandatory.

device   random        # Entropy device

Cryptographically secure random number generator.

device   ether         # Ethernet support

ether is only needed if the system has an Ethernet card. It includes generic Ethernet protocol code.

device   sl            # Kernel SLIP

sl provides SLIP support. This has been almost entirely supplanted by PPP, which is easier to set up, better suited for modem-to-modem connection, and more powerful.

device   ppp           # Kernel PPP

This is for kernel PPP support for dial-up connections. There is also a version of PPP implemented as a userland application that uses tun and offers more flexibility and features such as demand dialing.

device   tun           # Packet tunnel.

This is used by the userland PPP software. See the PPP section of the Handbook for more information.

device   pty           # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)

This is a pseudo-terminal or simulated login port. It is used by incoming telnet and rlogin sessions, xterm, and some other applications such as Emacs.

device   md            # Memory disks

Memory disk pseudo-devices.

device   gif           # IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling

This implements IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling, IPv4 over IPv6 tunneling, IPv4 over IPv4 tunneling, and IPv6 over IPv6 tunneling. The gif device is auto-cloning, and will create device nodes as needed.

device   faith         # IPv6-to-IPv4 relaying (translation)

This pseudo-device captures packets that are sent to it and diverts them to the IPv4/IPv6 translation daemon.

# The `bpf' device enables the Berkeley Packet Filter.
# Be aware of the administrative consequences of enabling this!
# Note that 'bpf' is required for DHCP.
device   bpf           # Berkeley packet filter

The Berkeley Packet Filter pseudo-device allows network interfaces to be placed in promiscuous mode, capturing every packet on a broadcast network such as an Ethernet network. These packets can be captured to disk and or examined using tcpdump(1).


The bpf(4) device is also used by dhclient(8). If DHCP is used, leave this uncommented.

# USB support
device          uhci          # UHCI PCI->USB interface
device          ohci          # OHCI PCI->USB interface
device          ehci          # EHCI PCI->USB interface (USB 2.0)
device          usb           # USB Bus (required)
#device         udbp          # USB Double Bulk Pipe devices
device          ugen          # Generic
device          uhid          # Human Interface Devices
device          ukbd          # Keyboard
device          ulpt          # Printer
device          umass         # Disks/Mass storage - Requires scbus and da
device          ums           # Mouse
device          ural          # Ralink Technology RT2500USB wireless NICs
device          urio          # Diamond Rio 500 MP3 player
device          uscanner      # Scanners
# USB Ethernet, requires mii
device          aue           # ADMtek USB Ethernet
device          axe           # ASIX Electronics USB Ethernet
device          cdce          # Generic USB over Ethernet
device          cue           # CATC USB Ethernet
device          kue           # Kawasaki LSI USB Ethernet
device          rue           # RealTek RTL8150 USB Ethernet

Support for various USB devices.

# FireWire support
device          firewire      # FireWire bus code
device          sbp           # SCSI over FireWire (Requires scbus and da)
device          fwe           # Ethernet over FireWire (non-standard!)

Support for various Firewire devices.

For more information and additional devices supported by FreeBSD, see /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/NOTES.

9.4.1. Large Memory Configurations (PAE)

Large memory configuration machines require access to more than the 4 gigabyte limit on User+Kernel Virtual Address (KVA) space. Due to this limitation, Intel added support for 36-bit physical address space access in the Pentium® Pro and later line of CPUs.

The Physical Address Extension (PAE) capability of the Intel® Pentium® Pro and later CPUs allows memory configurations of up to 64 gigabytes. FreeBSD provides support for this capability via the PAE kernel configuration option, available in all current release versions of FreeBSD. Due to the limitations of the Intel memory architecture, no distinction is made for memory above or below 4 gigabytes. Memory allocated above 4 gigabytes is simply added to the pool of available memory.

To enable PAE support in the kernel, add the following line to the kernel configuration file:

options		    PAE


The PAE support in FreeBSD is only available for Intel® IA-32 processors. It should also be noted that the PAE support in FreeBSD has not received wide testing, and should be considered beta quality compared to other stable features of FreeBSD.

PAE support in FreeBSD has a few limitations:

  • A process is not able to access more than 4 gigabytes of virtual memory space.

  • Device drivers that do not use the bus_dma(9) interface will cause data corruption in a PAE enabled kernel and are not recommended for use. For this reason, a PAE kernel configuration file is provided in FreeBSD which excludes all drivers not known to work in a PAE enabled kernel.

  • Some system tunables determine memory resource usage by the amount of available physical memory. Such tunables can unnecessarily over-allocate due to the large memory nature of a PAE system. One such example is the kern.maxvnodes sysctl, which controls the maximum number of vnodes allowed in the kernel. It is advised to adjust this and other such tunables to a reasonable value.

  • It might be necessary to increase the kernel virtual address (KVA) space or to reduce the amount of specific kernel resource that is heavily used in order to avoid KVA exhaustion. The KVA_PAGES kernel option can be used for increasing the KVA space.

For performance and stability concerns, it is advised to consult tuning(7). pae(4) contains up-to-date information on FreeBSD's PAE support.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.